Corvinus Journal of International Affairs
Vol. 5 No. 2 (2020): Crises in the Americas
ABSTRACTS AND AUTHORS
Redistributive and Developmental Policies of the Brazilian State during the World Economic Upswing
This article forms a part of a longer study that deals with the developmental problems of the peripheries in the global hierarchical world economy. This part of the research introduces the economic and social policies of semi-peripheral Brazil under the Lula era, the most successful catching-up period of the largest Latin-American country after the Second World War. The research questions were how the government influenced domestic consumption and investments in the period of the world economic expansion, and how efficient these policies were in increasing the Brazilian economic growth and mitigating the historically deep poverty and inequality. The article concludes that the developmentalist and redistributive government policies could not have had meaningful positive results if beneficial world economic circumstances had not made it possible by facilitating export and production.
Author Biography - Annamária Artner
Dr. Habil. Annamária Artner, C.Sc. is an economist, senior research fellow at the Institute of World Economics of the Centre for Economic and Regional Studies and college professor at Milton Friedman University, Budapest. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Identity Crisis in U.S. Foreign Policy: Discourses of Greatness and Exceptionalism after 2008
By the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century, the United States had to face a number of interrelated crises: the economic and financial crisis of 2008-09 coincided with the military overexpansion resulting from interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq. These developments culminated in a crisis of foreign-policy identity: the notion refers to a situation in which well-established conceptions of a country’s role in the international system are questioned, and new conceptions are created and reproduced. For the U.S., this manifested in a challenge to the unipolar leadership role that had been widely accepted in the post-Cold War era. Surprisingly, this did not lead to the disappearance of discourses of “American exceptionalism” and “greatness.” On the contrary, these ideas gained even greater significance in the foreign-policy debates of the 2010s, although their precise meaning was the subject of intense contestation. What explains this resurgence of exceptionalist rhetoric, and how can we characterize the different themes that appeared in these debates? The article introduces a new theoretical framework for understanding discourses of U.S. exceptionalism, and briefly examines the discourses of the Obama and the Trump presidencies. This analysis can highlight how the use of certain terms may accompany decisive changes in U.S. foreign policy, and how especially the presidency of Donald Trump signals a shift in the understanding of U.S. national role conception.
Author Biography - Áron Tábor
Áron Tábor holds a PhD (2020) in Political Science from Central European University. His dissertation examines the intellectual history of American exceptionalism from the beginning of the twentieth century.
Social and Environmental Conflicts in the Peruvian Amazon
The Peruvian Amazon remained relatively undisturbed until the 1860s, with higher immigration and the extraction of raw materials only beginning in the second half of the century. As a result of the rubber boom (1880–1910), many ethnic groups became extinct. During the 20th century, the exploitation of mahogany, cedar, and other useful trees, the cultivation of various plants and also, in some regions, gold mining began. In the last decades of the 20th century, the extraction of oil and other raw materials as well as the construction of roads and infrastructure led to a significant reduction in forest areas. Further developments are planned for the upcoming years. Illegal gold mining, oil extraction and deforestation are expected to intensify, with increasing local social resistance, one of the most prominent examples being the bloody conflict between the Peruvian army and local ethnic groups in 2009 in the city of Bagua. A growing number of non-governmental organizations are protesting against the processes taking place in the region. The purpose of this study is to provide a background for the understanding of these processes and present the current situation.
Author Biography - Katalin Jancsó
PhD in Modern History, Associate Professor at the Department of Hispanic Studies, University of Szeged. The focus of her research is the history and the social and economic situation of minorities (native people, women) and immigrants (Asians, Hungarians) in Latin America.
Filling the Vacuum: New Players in the Geopolitical Backyard of the United States?
At the end of the Cold War, the attention of the United States was drawn away from its own neighbouring region, Latin America. Events in the Balkans and the Middle East, besides others, and the fall of the Soviet Union left the region unattended, leaving a vacuum there. Latin American states slowly found their way back to democracy, although after a short period most of them tried a different route than before: the populations of several countries elected left-wing governments one after the other. The phenomenon known as Pink Tide changed the political landscape of the region not just domestically but also with regards to foreign relations: governments started to look for allies other than the US and other countries in the Western World. In parallel to these changes, China started to reach out for resources, and Russia rebooted its strategic views about its own global role — thus some of the new connections. Additionally, however, in the shadow of these large-scale steps, smaller steps by a distant regional power were also taken: Iran, and its proxy, the Hezbollah, as well as Lebanon, also set foot in Latin America. The paper aims to focus on these actors, with special regard to Iran and its growing influence in certain areas of the region.
Author Biography - Dávid Vogel
David Vogel earned his PhD in Military Science, following his studies in Security and Defence Policy, International Relations and Political Science. Besides various research positions, Dr. Vogel has recently completed a UN peacekeeping operation in Africa. He lectures regularly at national and international conferences and publishes about security and defence policy issues in Latin America and in Africa, as well as terrorism-related topics.
The mentioned studies can be accessed on the following website: https://journals.lib.uni-corvinus.hu/index.php/cojourn.